Essentials of the Eight Schools, The ［八宗綱要］ ( Hasshū-kōyō): An outline of the eight schools of Buddhism prominent in Japan before the Kamakura period (1185–1333), written in 1268 by Gyōnen, a priest of the Japanese Flower Garland (Kegon) school. The work begins with an explanation of the fundamentals of Buddhism and the history of the spread of Buddhism from India to China and later to Japan. Then it refers to each of the eight schools: the Dharma Analysis Treasury (Kusha), Establishment of Truth (Jōjitsu), Precepts (Ritsu), Dharma Characteristics (Hossō), Three Treatises (Sanron), Tendai, Flower Garland, and True Word (Shingon) schools that flourished in Japan’s Nara period (710–794) and Heian period (794–1185). Each school is described with regard to the meaning and origin of its name, the history of its formation and spread, and its basic scriptures and doctrines in India, China, and Japan. The work concludes with a brief explanation of the Zen and Pure Land schools, which were newer additions to Japanese Buddhism.