Establishment of Truth school ［成実宗］ (Chin Ch’eng-shih-tsung; Jōjitsu-shū): Also known as the Satyasiddhi school. A school based on The Treatise on the Establishment of Truth ( Satyasiddhi-shāstra) authored by Harivarman (third or fourth century) of India and translated into Chinese in the early fifth century by Kumārajīva. This treatise expounds two levels of truth: the worldly truth, which recognizes the transitory nature of things and analyzes and divides them into eighty-four dharmas, or elements of existence, in five categories; and the supreme truth, which indicates that both the self and the dharmas are empty and without substance. On the basis of this doctrine of non-substantiality, it outlines twenty-seven stages of practice to free oneself from desires and illusions. The Treatise on the Establishment of Truth is generally regarded as the pinnacle of Hinayana philosophy and in some respects resembles Mahayana. In China, Kumārajīva’s disciples Seng-tao and Seng-sung made an intense study of it, laying the foundation for the Establishment of Truth school. Study of The Treatise on the Establishment of Truth flourished during the Ch’i (479–502) and Liang (502–557) dynasties, and twenty-eight commentaries on it were produced during this period. In the Sui dynasty (581–618), however, after the rise of the Three Treatises (Chin San-lun; Sanron) school, which criticized the school’s view of non-substantiality as Hinayanistic, the Establishment of Truth school declined. The doctrines of the school were introduced to Japan together with those of the Three Treatises school. The Establishment of Truth school is known as one of the thirteen schools of Chinese Buddhism, and in Japan it was one of the so-called six schools of Nara. In actuality, however, it never became an independent school in Japan and was always studied in conjunction with the Three Treatises system. A government proclamation of 806 lists the Establishment of Truth school as a branch of the Three Treatises school.