fourfold rise and fall ［四重の興廃］ ( shijū-no-kōhai): Four levels of comparison that clarify the principle that, when a superior teaching rises, inferior teachings decline. They are as follows: (1) When the great doctrine of the pre-Lotus Sutra teachings rises, non-Buddhist teachings fall. (2) When the great teaching of the Lotus Sutra rises, the pre-Lotus Sutra teachings fall. (3) When the great doctrine of the essential teaching (latter half) of the Lotus Sutra rises, the theoretical teaching (first half) of the sutra falls. (4) When the great teaching of the observation of the mind rises, the essential teaching falls. This fourfold comparison is expounded in T’ien-t’ai’s Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra. Nichiren (1222–1282) accepted this standard of comparison and defined the teaching of the observation of the mind as the teaching of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, the practice of which he said enables all people in the Latter Day of the Law to manifest the Buddhahood inherent in their lives. The fourfold rise and fall is equivalent to the fivefold comparison that Nichiren set forth, except that it lacks the comparison of the Mahayana teachings with the Hinayana teachings.