five schools of Zen ［五家］ ( go-ke): A generic term for the branches of the Southern school of Zen (Ch’an) Buddhism in China. The five are the Lin-chi ( Rinzai), Kuei-yang (Igyō), Ts’ao-tung (Sōtō), Yün-men (Ummon), and Fa-yen (Hōgen) schools. The five plus the Huang-lung (Ōryū) and Yang-ch’i (Yōgi) schools, both of which broke away from the Lin-chi school, are together called the seven schools. All of the Southern Zen schools trace their lineage to Hui-neng (638–713), the sixth of the Chinese Zen patriarchs, who received the transmission from Hung-jen. Hui-neng propagated Zen in the southern part of China; therefore his lineage is called the Southern school of Zen. Another of Hung-jen’s disciples, Shen-hsiu (606–706), spread Zen Buddhism in northern China. His lineage came to be called the Northern school. See also Zen school.