four inverted views ［四顚倒］ ( shi-tendō): Also, four wrong-headed views or four topsy-turvy views. They are called “inverted” because one takes an opposite view of the truth. Mistaking impermanence for permanence, suffering for happiness, non-self for self, and impurity for purity. This indicates the inverted views of ordinary people who do not recognize the world of delusion for what it is. The term inverted views also means to mistake permanence for impermanence, happiness for suffering, self for non-self, and purity for impurity. This indicates the inverted views of voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones, who recognize the world of delusion for what it is but do not recognize the world of enlightenment for what it is. Taken together, the above are referred to as the eight inverted views.