four rivers ［四河］ ( shi-ga): Also, four great rivers. In the ancient Indian worldview, the four rivers in Jambudvīpa that originate from Anavatapta (Heat-Free) Lake: the Gangā River, the Sindhu River, the Vakshu River, and the Shītā River. The Gangā Riverand the Sindhu River are identified respectively as the Ganges River and the Indus River. As for the identity of the other two rivers, opinions differ, but generally the Vakshu River is presumed to be the Amu Darya River flowing into the Aral Sea, and the Shītā River, the Syr Darya River, also flowing into the Aral Sea. According to Buddhist texts, the Gangā, Sindhu, Vakshu, and Shītā rivers flow respectively from a silver ox’s mouth on the eastern side of Anavatapta Lake, a gold elephant’s mouth on the southern side, an emerald horse’s mouth on the western side, and a crystal lion’s mouth on the northern side. These four rivers flow respectively eastward, southward, westward, and northward into the ocean.