five hundred precepts ［五百戒］ ( gohyaku-kai): The rules of monastic discipline to be observed by fully ordained nuns of Hinayana Buddhism. “Five hundred” is not a literal figure; the actual number differs from one source to another. The Fourfold Rules of Discipline lists 348 precepts that fall into seven categories: (1) Eight prohibitions. The prohibition of the eight major, or unpardonable, offenses ( pārājika), punishment for which is expulsion from the Buddhist Order. These offenses are killing, stealing, having sexual relations, lying (particularly, claiming to have attained insight that one does not in fact possess), touching a male, improper association with a male, hiding another nun’s pārājika offenses, and following a monk whose behavior goes against monastic rules. These eight unpardonable offenses are also called the eight major offenses, the eight grave offenses, the eight pārājikas, or the eight pārājika offenses. (2) Seventeen major prohibitions, violation of which results in suspension from the Buddhist Order for a specified period. This second category forbids such acts as matchmaking and initiating lawsuits. (3) Thirty standards that, if broken, cause one’s property to be forfeited to the Buddhist Order. (4) One hundred seventy-eight lesser standards, such as telling simple lies. (5) Eight minor regulations (concerned with meals). (6) One hundred disciplines pertaining to meals, clothing, preaching, etc. (7) Seven rules for the settling of disputes within the Buddhist Order.