four noble truths ［四諦・四聖諦］ ( chatur-ārya-satya; shi-tai or shi-shōtai): A fundamental doctrine of Buddhism clarifying the cause of suffering and the way of emancipation. The four noble truths are the truth of suffering, the truth of the origin of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering, and the truth of the path to the cessation of suffering. Shakyamuni is said to have expounded the four noble truths at Deer Park in Vārānasī, India, during his first sermon after attaining enlightenment. They are: (1) all existence is suffering; (2) suffering is caused by selfish craving; (3) the eradication of selfish craving brings about the cessation of suffering and enables one to attain nirvana; and (4) there is a path by which this eradication can be achieved, namely, the discipline of the eightfold path. The eightfold path consists of right views, right thinking, right speech, right action, right way of life, right endeavor, right mindfulness, and right meditation.