seven schools ［七宗］ ( shichi-shū): Seven prominent schools of Buddhism in Japan. Lists of the seven schools differed: One includes the Dharma Analysis Treasury (Kusha), Establishment of Truth (Jōjitsu), Precepts (Ritsu), Dharma Characteristics (Hossō), Three Treatises (Sanron), Flower Garland (Kegon), and True Word (Shingon) schools. The first six schools in the above list are known as the six schools of Nara, which flourished during the Nara period (710–794); the seventh, the True Word school, rose to prominence during the early Heian period (794–1185). A second list consists of the six schools of Nara plus the Tendai school (instead of the True Word school). The Tendai and True Word schools became popular during the same period. A third list names the Precepts, Dharma Characteristics, Three Treatises, Flower Garland, Tendai, True Word, and Zen schools; it excludes the Dharma Analysis Treasury school and the Establishment of Truth school because they were not regarded as fully independent.