sixteen princes ［十六王子］ ( jūroku-ōji): The sixteen sons of the Buddha Great Universal Wisdom Excellence, who appeared in the remote past as described in the “Parable of the Phantom City” (seventh) chapter of the Lotus Sutra. According to the chapter, Great Universal Wisdom Excellence was a king with sixteen sons. When he renounced secular life and attained enlightenment, his sons also renounced secular life to follow their father and heard the Lotus Sutra from him. They embraced faith in the sutra and preached it for the people. Their preaching is sometimes referred to as the restatement of Great Universal Wisdom Excellence Buddha’s teaching. The above chapter states that these sixteen sons presently live in their respective lands in the ten directions and preach the Law as Buddhas, and lists the names of these Buddhas. They are Akshobhya Buddha and Sumeru Peak Buddha in the east, Lion Voice Buddha and Lion Appearance Buddha in the southeast, Void-Dwelling Buddha and Ever Extinguished Buddha in the south, Emperor Appearance Buddha and Brahmā Appearance Buddha in the southwest, Amitāyus Buddha (Amida Buddha) and Saving All from Worldly Suffering Buddha in the west, Tamālapattra Sandalwood Fragrance Transcendental Power Buddha and Sumeru Appearance Buddha in the northwest, Cloud Freedom Buddha and Cloud Freedom King Buddha in the north, Destroying All Worldly Fears Buddha in the northeast, and Shakyamuni Buddha in this sahā world.