substituting faith for wisdom ［以信代慧］ ( ishin-daie): The principle that faith is the true cause for gaining supreme wisdom, and faith alone leads to enlightenment. In general, Buddhism describes supreme wisdom as the cause of enlightenment. According to the Lotus Sutra, however, even Shāriputra, who was revered as foremost in wisdom, could attain enlightenment only through faith, not through wisdom. The “Simile and Parable” (third) chapter of the sutra states: “Even you, Shāriputra, in the case of this sutra were able to gain entrance through faith alone. How much more so, then, the other voice-hearers. Those other voice-hearers—it is because they have faith in the Buddha’s words that they can comply with this sutra, not because of any wisdom of their own.” In Great Concentration and Insight, T’ien-t’ai (538–597) says, “Buddhism is like an ocean that one can only enter with faith.” In his 1277 treatise On the Four Stages of Faith and the Five Stages of Practice, Nichiren states, “Because our wisdom is inadequate, he [Shakyamuni Buddha] teaches us to substitute faith for wisdom, making this single word ‘faith’ the foundation” (785).