Shānavāsa ［商那和修］ (; Shōnawashu): Also known as Shānavāsin, Shānakavāsa, or Shānakavāsin. He is regarded as the third of Shakyamuni Buddha’s twenty-three, or the fourth of his twenty-four, successors. According to A History of the Buddha’s Successors, he was a wealthy man of Rājagriha, the capital of Magadha in India. Extremely wise and valiant, as a lay practitioner of Buddhism, he made offerings of buildings and other things to the Buddhist Order. Finally he renounced the secular world to devote himself as a monk to practicing the Buddha’s teachings. Shānavāsa inherited Shakyamuni’s teachings from Ānanda, the second of the Buddha’s twenty-three successors, and devoted himself to spreading the teachings, traveling to Mathurā and Kashmir to do so. He transferred the teachings to Upagupta. A History of the Buddha’s Successors also describes Madhyāntika as a successor of Ānanda together with Shānavāsa. Although Madhyāntika propagated Buddhism in Kashmir, no distinct lineage or successorship emerged from his efforts and the recorded transmission of the teachings he had received from Ānanda ended. Madhyāntika, however, is sometimes included among the Buddha’s successors, bringing the total number of successors to twenty-four; among these twenty-four successors, Shānavāsa is traditionally regarded as the fourth, and Madhyāntika, as the third.