Shubin ［守敏］ (n.d.): A priest of the True Word (Shingon) school in Japan during the ninth century. He studied the teachings of the Three Treatises (Sanron) and Dharma Characteristics (Hossō) schools under Gonsō and other priests and also pursued Esoteric Buddhism. In 823 he was given Sai-ji temple in the capital, Kyoto, by Emperor Saga, while Kōbō, the founder of the True Word school, was given Tō-ji temple, also in Kyoto. In 824, during a drought, Shubin competed with Kōbō in praying for rain. It is said that Shubin succeeded in making some rain fall, but that Kōbō failed. The two are said to have been on bad terms thereafter, with Kōbō claiming that whatever rain eventually fell resulted from his prayers.